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List of leaders of China


The history of China is extremely complex in that it is spread over several millennia, that it is composed of several great periods during which it oscillates between a bursting in many small kingdoms and military conquests of vast territories regrouping disparate peoples. The territory of what we know of the current Chinese nation has fluctuated enormously over the centuries, but it has always been formed in an approximately homogeneous set north of the Himalayan mountains, along the Pacific coast. His most frequent enemies were the Manchu neighbors (who were at the origin of the last imperial dynasty), the Tartars, and the Mongols, also at the origin of an important dynasty, the Yuan.

Each dynasty is made up of several emperors, the remaining power in the family from generation to generation. From 1912 China became a republic but its history does not stabilize so far as still the country is divided into two separate nations, the People's Republic of China and Taiwan.

There are three main periods in the history of China: The pre-imperial period (-1767 to -221), the imperial period (-221 to 1912) and the contemporary period (1912 to the present). Since the imperial period is very long, it has been divided into several parts that correspond to historically coherent notions.

















Pre-imperial period (-1767 to -221)


Dynasty Xia (Avant -1767)

It would be the oldest known Chinese dynasty. Occupying a relatively small territory in present-day North China, it would have ruled before the sixteenth century BC. It is considered to be at the origin of the whole history of China, but it could well be only an imaginary dynasty destined to anchor the continuation in a historically vague context.



Dynasty Shang (-1767 to -1045)

Names Begin End
Cheng Tang -1767 -1753
Wai Bing -1753 -1720
Zhong Ren -1720 -1691
Tai Jia -1691 -1666
Wo Ding -1666 -1666
Tai Geng -1666 -1666
Xiao Jia -1666 -1649
Yong Ji -1649 -1637
Tai Wu -1636 -1562
Zhong Ding -1562 -1549
Wai Ren -1549 -1534
He Dan Jia -1534 -1525
Zu Yi -1525 -1506
Zu Xin -1506 -1490
Wo Jia -1490 -1465
Zu Ding -1465 -1433
Nan Geng -1433 -1408
Yang Jia -1408 -1401
Pan Geng -1401 -1373
Xiao Xin -1373 -1352
Xiao Yi -1352 -1324
Wu Ding -1324 -1265
Zu Ji -1265 -1265
Zu Geng -1265 -1258
Zu Jia -1258 -1225
Lin Xin -1225 -1219
Kang Ding -1219 -1198
Wu Yi -1198 -1194
Tai Ding -1194 -1191
Di Yi -1191 -1154
Di Xin -1086 -1045


Dynasty Zhou (-1045 to -256)

Names Begin End
Zhou Wuwang -1046 -1043
Zhou Chengwang -1042 -1021
Zhou Kangwang -1020 -996
Zhou Zhaowang -996 -977
Zhou Muwang -976 -921
Zhou Gongwang -921 -909
Zhou Yiwang -909 -884
Zhou Xiaowang -884 -875
Zhou Yiwang -875 -864
Zhou Liwang -864 -841
Gonghe (Régence) -841 -827
Zhou Xuanwang -827 -781
Zhou Youwang -781 -771

From -771 the Zhou fall back on the eastern part, then begin the reign of the Zhou of the East.

Zhou Pingwang -771 -720
Zhou Huanwang -720 -697
Zhou Zhuangwang -697 -682
Zhou Xiwang -682 -677
Zhou Huiwang -677 -652
Zhou Xiangwang -652 -619
Zhou Qingwang -619 -611
Zhou Kuangwang -611 -607
Zhou Dingwang -607 -586
Zhou Jianwang -586 -572
Zhou Lingwang -572 -545
Zhou Jingwang -545 -521
Zhou Daowang -521 -520
Zhou Jingwang -520 -476
Zhou Yuanwang -476 -469
Zhou Zhendingwang -469 -441
Zhou Aiwang -441 -441
Zhou Siwang -441 -441
Zhou Kaowang -440 -426
Zhou Weiliewang -426 -402
Zhou Anwang -402 -376
Zhou Liewang -376 -369
Zhou Xianwang -369 -321
Zhou Shenjingwang -321 -315
Zhou Nanwang -315 -256

Imperial period (-221 to 1912)


Ancient Imperial period (-221 to 221)



Dynasty Qin (-221 to -207)

Names Begin End
Qin Shi Huangdi -221 -210
Qin Er Shi -210 -207
Ziying -207 -207


Dynasty Han of the West (-206 to 9)

Names Begin End
Gaozu -206 -195
Huidi -195 -188
Qian Shaodi -188 -184
Hou Shaodi -184 -180
Wendi -180 -157
Jingdi -157 -141
Wudi -141 -87
Zhaodi -87 -74
Prince of Changyi -74 -74
Xuandi -74 -48
Yuandi -48 -33
Chengdi -33 -7
Aidi -7 -1
Pingdi -1 6
Ruzi Ying 6 9


Dynasty Xin (9 to 23)

Names Begin End
Wang Mang 9 23


Dynasty Han of the East (23 to 25)

Names Begin End
Geng Shidi 23 25


Dynasty Han of the East (25 to 220)

Names Begin End
Guang Wudi 25 57
Mingdi 57 75
Zhangdi 75 88
Hedi 88 106
Shangdi 106 106
Andi 106 125
Shaodi 125 125
Shundi 125 144
Chongdi 144 145
Zhidi 145 146
Huandi 146 168
Lingdi 168 189
Shaodi 189 189
Xiandi 189 220


The three kingdom (221 to 265)


The fall of the Han causes the division of their territories into three parts: The kingdom of Wei, the kingdom of Wu and the kingdom of Shu. They were all three conquered by the Jin dynasty which was created later. These three kingdoms therefore lived in parallel and ended at ages a little off.







Wei

Wu

Shu

Cao Pi 220-226 Sun Quan 229-252 Liu Bei 221-223
Cao Rui 226-239 Sun Liang 252-258 Liu Shan 223-263
Cao Fang 239-254 Sun Xiu 258-264
Cao Mao 254-260 Sun Hao 264-280
Cao Huan 260-265






Reunification


Dynasty of the Jin of the West (265 à 316)

Names Begin End
Sima Yan 265 290
Sima Zhong 290 307
Sima Lun 307 311
Sima Ye 313 316

At the fall of the western Jin the territory of China is split in two, a northern part in which takes place what we call today the "Sixteen Kingdoms", and a southern part where we find the eastern Jin.



North: the 16 kingdoms


Dynasty Wei of the North (386 to 535)

Names Reign
Tuoba Gui 386 to 409
Tuoba Si 409 to 423
Tuoba Tao 423 to 452
Tuoba Yu 452
Tuoba Jun 452 to 465
Tuoba Hong 465 to 471
Tuoba Yuan Hong 465 to 499
Yuan Ke 499 to 515
Yuan Xu 515 to 528
Youzhu 528 to 530
Yuan Gong 530 to 531
Yuan Lang 531 to 532
Yuan Xiu 532 to 535


Dynasty Wei of the North-West (535 to 556)

Names Reign
Yuan Baoju 534 à 551
Yan Qin 551 à 554
Yuan Kuo 554 à 557


Dynastie Wei du Nord-Est (534 to 550)

Names Reign
Yuan Baoju 534 à 551
Yan Qin 551 à 554
Yuan Kuo 554 à 557


Dynasty Qi of the North (550 to 577)

Names Reign
Gao Yang 551 to 559
Gao Yin 559 to 560
Gao Yan 560 to 561
Gao Zhan 561 to 565
Gao Wei 565 to 576
Gao Heng 576 to 577


Dynasty Zhou of the North (557 to 581)

Names Reign
557 Yumen Jue
557 to 561 Yumen Yu
561 to 578 Yumen Yong
578 to 579 Yumen Yun
579 to 581 Yumen Chan




South: The 4 dynasties


Dynasty Jin of the East

Names Reign
Sima Rui 317 to 323
Sima Shao 323 to 325
Sima Yan 325 to 342
Sima Yue 342 to 344
Sima Dan 344 to 361
Sima Pi 361 to 365
Sima Yi 365 to 372
Sima Yu 372
Sima Yao 372 to 396
Sima Dezong 396 to 419
Sima Dewen 419 to 420


Dynasty Song of the South

Names Reign
Wudi 420 to 422
Shaodi 422 to 424
Wendi 424 to 453
Xiaowudi 453 to 464
Liu Ziye 464 to 465
Mingdi 465 to 472
Liu Yu 472 to 477
Shundi 477 to 479


Dynasty Qi

Names Reign
Xiao Daocheng 479 to 482
Xiao Zeng 482 to 493
Xiao Zhaoye 493 to 494
Xiao Zhaowen 494
Xiao Luan 494 to 498
Xiao Baojuan 498 to 501
Xiao Baorong 501 to 502


Dynasty Lian

Names Reign
Xiao Yan 502 to 549
Xiao Gang 549 to 551
Xiao Yi 551 to 554
Xiao Fangzhi 554 to 557


Dynasty Chen

Names Reign
557 to 559 Chen Baxian
559 to 566 Chen Qian
566 to 568 Chen Bozong
568 to 582 Chen Xu
582 to 589 Chen Shubao


Reunification


Dynasty Sui (581 to 619)

Names Begin End
Sui Wendi 581 604
Sui Yangdi 604 617
Sui Gongdi 618 618
Yang Tong 618 619


Dynasty Tang (618 to 907)

Names Begin End
Táng Gaozu 618 626
Taizong 626 649
Gaozong 649 683
Zhongzong 683 684
Ruizong 684 690
Wǔ Zétiān 690 705
Zhongzong 705 710
Shangdi 710 710
Ruizong 710 712
Xuánzōng 712 756
Suzong 756 762
Daizong 762 779
Dezong 779 805
Shunzong 805 805
Xianzong 805 820
Muzong 820 824
Jingzong 824 827
Wenzong 827 840
Wuzong 840 846
Xuanzong 846 859
Yizong 859 873
Xizong 873 888
Zhaozong 888 904
Aidi 904 907







North: 5 dynasties


Later dynastie Liang (907 to 923)

Names Begin End
Taizu 907 912
Modi 912 923


Later dynasty Tang (923 to 936)

Names Begin End
Zhuanzong 923 926
Mingzong 926 933
Mindi 934 934
Modi 934 936


Later dynasty Jin (936 to 947)

Names Begin End
Gaozu 936 942
Chudi 942 947


Later dynastie Han (947 to 951)

Names Begin End
Gaozu 947 947
Yindi 947 950


Later dynastie Zhou (951 to 960)

Names Begin End
Taizu 951 954
Shizong 954 959
Gongdi 959 960












South: 10 kingdoms


Dynasty Wu (907 to 937)

Names Begin End
Yang Wo 907 908
Yang Longyan 908 921
Yang Pu 921 937


Dynasty Wuyue (907 to 978)

Names Begin End
Qian Liu 907 932
Qian Yuanguan 932 941
Qian Hongzuo 941 947
Qian Hongzong 947 947
Qian Hongchu 947 978


Dynasty Min (909 to 945)

Names Begin End
Wáng Shěnzhī 909 925
Wáng Yánhàn 925 926
Wáng Yànjūn 926 935
Wáng Jìpéng 935 939
Wáng Yánxī 939 944
Wáng Wénjìn 944 945
Wáng Yánzhèng 943 945


Dynasty Chu (907 to 951)

Names Begin End
Wǔmù Wáng 907 930
Mǎ Xīshēng 930 932
Mǎ Xīfàn 932 947
Mǎ Xīguǎng 947 951
MMǎ Xī'è 951 951
Mǎ Xīchóng 951 951


Dynasty Han of the South (917 to 971)

Names Begin End
Gaozu 917 941
Shangdi 941 943
Zhongzong 943 958
Houzhu 958 971


Former dynasty Shu (907 to 925)

Names Begin End
Gaozu 907 918
Houzhu 918 925


Dynasty Shu (934 to 965)

Names Begin End
Mèng Zhīxíang 934 934
Mèng Chǎng 934 965


Dynasty Shu Jingnan (924 to 963)

Names Begin End
Gao Jixing 909 928
Gao Conghui 928 948
Gao Baorong 960 962
Gao Jichong 962 963


Dynasty Tang of the South (937 to 975)

Names Begin End
Lǐ Biàn 937 943
Lǐ Jǐng 943 961
Lǐ Yù 961 975


Dynasty Han of the North (951 to 979)

Names Begin End
Liu Min 951 954
Liu Jun 954 968
Liu Ji'en 968 968
Liu Jiyuan 968 979


Feudal imperial period


Dynasty Song (960 to 1279)

Names Begin End
Taizu 960 976
Taizong 976 997
Zhenzong 997 1022
Renzong 1022 1063
Yingzong 1063 1067
Shenzong 1067 1085
Zhezong 1085 1100
Huizong 1100 1126
Qinzong 1126 1127
Gaozong 1127 1162
Xiaozong 1162 1189
Guangzong 1189 1194
Ningzong 1194 1224
Lizong 1224 1264
Gong 1274 1276
Gong 1274 1276
Duanzong 1276 1278
Bing 1278 1279


Dynasty Yuan (1279 to 1368)

Names Begin End
Kubilaï Khan 1271 1294
Témur Khan 1294 1307
Külüg Khan 1307 1311
Buyantu Khan 1311 1320
Gegeen Khan 1320 1323
Yisüntemür 1323 1328
Razibay 1328 1328
Tövtömör Khan 1328 1329
Küsele Qayan 1329 1329
Tövtömör Khan 1329 1332
Togoontomor 1333 1368


Recent imperial period


Dynasty Ming (1368 to 1644)

Names Begin End
Hóngwǔ 1368 1398
Jiànwén 1398 1402
Yǒnglè 1402 1424
Hóngxī 1424 1425
Xuāndé 1425 1435
Zhèngtǒng 1435 1449
Jǐngtài 1449 1457
Tiānshùn 1457 1464
Chénghuà 1464 1487
Hóngzhì 1487 1505
Zhèngdé 1505 1521
Jiājìng 1521 1567
Lóngqìng 1567 1572
Wànlì 1572 1620
Tàichāng 1620 1620
Tiānqǐ 1620 1627
Chóngzhēn 1627 1644


Dynasty Qing (1644 to 1912)

Names Begin End
Tiānming 1616 1626
Tiāncōng 1626 1643
Shùnzhì 1643 1661
Kāngxī 1661 1722
Yōngzhèng 1722 1735
Qiánlóng 1735 1796
Jiāqìng 1796 1820
Dàoguāng 1820 1850
Xiánfēng 1850 1861
Tóngzhì 1861 1875
Guāngxù 1875 1908
Xuāntǒng (Pǔyí) 1908 1912

Contemporary period (1912 to nowodays)



Republic of China (1912 to 1949)

Names Begin End
Sun Yat-sen 1912 1912
Yuan Shikai 1912 1916
Li Yuang-Hong 1916 1917
Feng Guozhang 1917 1918
Xu Shichang 1918 1922
Zhou Ziqi 1922 1922
Li Yuang-Hong 1922 1923
Gao Lingwei 1923 1923
Tsao Kun 1923 1924
Huang Fu 1924 1924
Tuan Chi-Jui 1924 1926
Hu Weide 1926 1926
Yan Huiqing 1926 1926
Du Xigui 1926 1926
Wellington Koo 1926 1927
Tan Yankai 1928 1928
Tchang Kaï-chek 1928 1931
Lin Sen 1931 1943
Tchang Kaï-chek 1943 1949
Li Tsung-Jen 1949 1950



Mainland China


People's Republic of China (1949 to nowodays)

Names Begin End
Mao Zedong 1949 1959
Liu Shaoqi 1959 1968
Dong Biwu 1968 1970
Dong Biwu 1970 1975
Chu Teh 1975 1976
Deng Xiaoping 1976 1978
Ye Jianying 1978 1983
Peng Zhen 1983 1983
Li Xiannian 1983 1988
Yang Shangkun 1988 1993
Jiang Zemin 1993 2003
Hu Jintao 2003 2013
Xi Jinping 2013



Taïwan


Republic of China (1949 to nowodays)

Names Begin End
Tchang Kaï-chek 1950 1975
Yen Chia-kan 1975 1978
Tchang Ching-kuo 1978 1988
Lee Teng-hui 1988 2000
Chen Shui-bian 2000 2008
Ma Ying-jeou 2008 2016
Tsai Ing-wen 2016


See also:

History of China

Life of an emperor




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