From its design to the present day, the Eiffel Tower has had a turbulent history, as has been the case for many other monuments that disturbed the population of the time. What a strange idea to want to build a metal structure 1000 feet high in full Paris, romantic city if any? And yet, who today would wish to make it disappear from the horizon of the city, considering it useless, unattractive, even disturbing?
Here are the main stages of the life of the tower, from the end of the 19th century to today. The detailed story can be read on this page.
Historical landmark: Before construction
1874: Proposal for a 300m lap by American engineers Clarke and Reeves.
This tower was supposed to be built on the grounds of the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. It was a conical tube made of very large cast iron. This project will never see the day, for lack of will, but also of financial means. It was, however, the first truly feasible tower project of more than 300m (Learn more)
1881: Proposal for a 300m solar tower for lighting in Paris.
Another attempt to build a gigantic tower, this proposal by Amédée Sébillot, electrical engineer and Jules Bourdais, architect, was intended to build a 300m tower with a powerful lighthouse can illuminate Paris . This seemingly unrealistic project was not so much, but it was never built. (Learn more)
June 6, 1884: First proposal of tour of Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, the heads of the offices and methods of Eiffel
Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, heads of design offices and Eiffel's methods, draws the plan for a 300m iron tower and offers it to Gustave Eiffel. This rejects the project but encourages them to continue this study, finding the idea interesting but the tower unsightly.
September 18, 1884: New presentation of a 300m tower to Gustave Eiffel. The latter accepts it
Following its rejection a few months earlier by Gustave Eiffel, the project of a tower in the heart of Paris has been redone, the tower is structurally credible and more aesthetic. Eiffel launches a patent for the methods of building a 300m metal tower.
May 1st, 1886: Launch of a competition for the construction of a 300m tower on the occasion of the World's Fair in 1889
A competition to build a 300m tower on the occasion of the 1889 World's Fair is launched. With its privileged relationship with the Minister, Eiffel itself establishes some of the constraints that will be applied and ahead of its competitors.
May 12, 1886: Formation of the project study commission
Following the launch of the competition for the construction of a 300m tower in the heart of Paris, the committee for the 1889 Universal Exhibition is a study commission to analyze and choose the winner.
January 8, 1887: Signature of the concession contract.
The commission signs with Gustave Eiffel a concession contract for the exploitation of the tower which it must build in the Champs-de-Mars. This contract stipulates that the exploitation has a duration of 20 years, that is until December 31, 1909. The project is in progress.
Historical landmark: January 28, 1887, beginning of construction
January 28, 1887: Work begins.
It is January 28, 1889 that really begins work on the Champs-de-Mars. The project first attacks digging excavations of the No. 2 pile, military school side, where the ground is the simplest to dig. (Learn more)
January 29, 1887: Digging of excavations of pile N ° 3 begins.
The day after the excavations of the pile N ° 3, also on the side of the military school, are attacked. The creation of complete foundations will take several weeks.
beginning of February 1887: Digging of excavations of pile N ° 4 begins.
The foundations of the pile N ° 4 and 1 are more complex to make because they are on the edge of the Seine, Eiffel must face infiltrations. To overcome the problem he will use a compressed air system, an innovative technology in this area.
February 14, 1887: Publication of the protest letter of 47 artists against the Eiffel Tower.
In front of the progress of the works, 47 artists of the time joined to publish a letter denouncing the misdeeds of the Eiffel Tower, accused of unsightliness and danger, given its size and weight. (Learn more)
February 23, 1887: End of excavation of pile N ° 2.
The excavations of stack # 2, the first to have started, are complete. The masons begin their work to make the massive, then the foundations themselves.
March 4, 1887: Beginning of masonry of pile N ° 2.
Once the excavations are dug, the masons enter the scene. They sink the heavy concrete blocks, then make the foundations and mount the bases.
March 8th, 1887: End of excavations of pile N ° 3.
It took a little more than a month to dig the excavations of the No. 3 pile. The land was either flattened on the ground between the piles, or evacuated by horse-drawn dumpers. We also used wagons.
March 9, 1887: Beginning of the foundations of the pile N ° 3.
Third pile whose masons attacked the foundations. This is the second stack on the Military School side.
March 25, 1887: Beginning of the excavations of pile N ° 4.
Beginning of the masonry of the last pile, following the completion of digging.
April 9, 1887: End of masonry of pile N ° 1.
It is on this date that the base of the pile N ° 1 is definitely finished.
April 10, 1887: End of masonry of stack N ° 2.
This second base is definitely finished the day after the pile N ° 1.
end of April 1887: end of masonry pile N ° 3.
It will be necessary to wait until the end of the month so that the pile N ° 3 is completed.
June 16, 1887: end of masonry pile # 4.
It is mid-June that the last of the four piles has its foundations definitely finished. All that remains then is to put the counter-shoes in which will come to put the hoofs serving as starting point crossbowmen. (Find out more)
June 1887: End of the installation of the support shoes of the metal structure.
In June 1887 the whole masonry part is finished, so the metal part can start.
Historical landmark: July 1, 1887, beginning of steel structure construction
July 1st, 1887: Start of the construction of the metal structure.
It was less than 6 months after construction began that the workers were able to start assembling the metal part. Beams, beams and other spacers are individually mounted from the ground. At first there was no need for cranes or scaffolding.
September 2, 1887: Installation of the first mounting crane, on stack # 3.
Two months after the beginning of the construction of the metal part the scaffoldings were no longer sufficient to raise the rooms to the right height. It is on the pile N ° 3 that it is mounted. Three more cranes will be installed later, they will all be used up to the second floor, because from there there was more room to use them all. (Learn more)
October 10, 1887: The stack height reaches the tipping point.
To avoid it, Eiffel uses scaffolding and sandboxes. The tipping point is the height that makes the structure of a pile, moving further and further from its base, may tip over into the void, attracted by gravity under its own weight. To avoid this Gustave Eiffel had scaffolding installed under the piles, each ending in a sand box, that is to say a box from which we could remove the sand gradually to adjust the height of support very precisely. (Find out more)
December 4, 1887: End of the assembly of the first 4 panels.
The panels are the horizontal 'slices' of the Eiffel Tower that count 29. The first 4 make it go up to the 1st floor.
December 7, 1887: Junction of the four pillars at the level of the first floor.
This junction is a great technological moment. Each pile being independent of each other it was not sure that they were all at the right height, so to avoid the problems each pile had, at the level of the base, a cylinder of great power able to regulate the final height of the battery. That's why it is sometimes said that the Eiffel Tower is mounted on a cylinder. (Find out more)
December 18, 1887: Beginning of the assembly of the horizontal beams of the 1st floor.
Once the 4 batteries were aligned it was necessary to mount the assembly beams of the 1st floor, which marks the meeting of the 4 batteries in a common belt.
March 1, 1888: End of assembly of the first floor.
Between the installation of the beams of the first floor, the most delicate operation, the laying of joists, the creation of the gallery and the installation of the guard-work time did not exceed 4 months, this which seems very fast when you know the means of the time.
April 1, 1888: Beginning of the elevation to the 2nd floor.
Once the first floor was finished the scaffolding on the ground was mounted on the first platform so that the workers could work in the correct conditions. The height begins to be important, the tower already dominates the highest building of Paris.
April 1888: Installation of a canteen on the 1st floor, for the workers.
Each worker took approximately 30 minutes to get to the 3rd floor of the tower, which is very fast. But if they had to go downstairs again for lunch, at noon, to go back up it would have been even more dangerous. To avoid this Gustave Eiffel to create a canteen on the first floor, canteen almost free, because Eiffel was catching up its cost by the productivity gained.
May 7, 1888: Beginning of the assembly of the decorative arches.
Decorative bows are important elements, despite the fact that it is not a structural element. But the success of the Eiffel Tower also lies in its beauty, hence the importance of the workers in charge of decoration.
August 14, 1888: End of the installation of the 2nd platform.
The end of the installation of the 2nd platform marks a step in the construction of the tower. From there, the 4 pillars join in a single pilon, requiring a modification of editing techniques.
August 31, 1888: End of the assembly of the decorative arches.
The decorative bows were quite long to put, it still took 4 months. But it was an important part of the tower, which contributes to its popularity.
September 1888: Start of work on the second floor.
The tower is now rising in the Parisian sky above any other building, it is visible from everywhere where the eye is.
September 19, 1888: Labor strike movement
As often in construction sites of this size a social movement is triggered between the workers and Gustave Eiffel. The movement focuses on increasing the salary and obtaining a risk premium proportional to the working height, which is rejected by Eiffel. (Learn more)
21 September 1988: Employee wage agreement marks the end of the strike
This strike was ephemeral, it lasted only 3 days. The workers partially won, with an increase. The risk premium, it is not changed, Eiffel believes that the risk is the same 40m or 280m.
September 23, 1888: Beginning of the foundation works
The bases correspond to the interior of the bases. They could be done later because they did not influence the tower supports.
November 30, 1888: End of the assembly of the intermediate platform, beginning of the assembly above.
The tower does not finish rising in the air. The intermediate platform is intended for the transhipment of passengers between the 2nd and 3rd floor, at the time of construction it was not possible for an elevator to go directly to the 3rd without going through a step. This is the role of this intermediary platform. Nowadays it is unused.
January 4, 1889: End of foundation works
End of the work under the pedestals, which started on September 23rd. They only lasted a little over 3 months.
January 5, 1889: Start of work for the installation of Otis elevators (North and South Pillars)
January 5th marks the beginning of the work of the mechanical access parts to the floors. The Otis lifts are the first ones installed, they will be immediately followed by other lifts.
19 January 1889: Start of the installation of the "Roux et Combaluzier" elevator cabins (Pillars East and West)
In the same month, the elevators of the Roux and Combaluzier lifts, the future Schneider, come on the tower to put in place the necessary mechanical parts. Note that for the elevators, it is the personnel of the hardware supplier who comes to install it, it is not the workers of the Eiffel shipyard. (Learn more)
January 1889: Start of the assembly of restaurants on the 1st floor
At the time of construction, the platforms were galleries around the floor. Each had buildings of its own. On the first floor there were 2 restaurants (one Russian, one French), an Anglo-American bar, and a theater.
February 11, 1889: Start of assembly of machines and pumps
At the same time that we were busy on the upper parts for the start of restaurants, the workers were working on the installation of the various hydraulic pumps that operated the elevators.
February 20, 1889: Start of installation of the Edoux elevator, which leads to the 3rd floor
It was only after installing the elevators on the 2nd floor that the Edoux elevator, which climbed to the 3rd floor, was attacked. It was in two parts, one went up to the intermediate platform, the other to the top.
February 24, 1889: End of work of the 3rd platform, beginning of work above.
The tower is almost completely finished. All that remains is the upper part, containing a technical room, a room reserved for Mr Eiffel, the campanile, and finally the flagpole.
March 11, 1889: Beginning of the laying of tanks and pipes
It was about 20 days after work began on the pumps that the tanks and piping of these pumps were laid. These were essential elements because the hydraulic pumps required a large amount of water, available at will. These tanks were in place on the ground, but also on the floors.
March 31, 1889: Arrival at the summit. Laying the tricolor flag.
The inauguration of the Eiffel Tower took place on March 31, 1889, it was materialized by the laying of the tricolor flag at the top of the campanile. (Learn more)
April 10, 1889: End of assembly of pumps and machines
It was after the inauguration that the elevator machines were finished. The inauguration takes place, most of the time, before the actual completion of the works. In the case of the Eiffel Tower it was the arrival at the summit that marked the inauguration, but the tower itself was still undergoing a lot of work, between elevators, restaurants, various equipment, etc.
April 14, 1889: End of the work of the metal structure
The last beams were riveted, the construction elements were lowered: On April 14 there was no more structural work at the Eiffel Tower, it was finished.
April 15, 1889: Start of the work of the restaurant Ecole Militaire
This other restaurant was not yet set up, it was fast, by the opening.
May 1, 1889: End of the laying of tanks and pipes
The end of the technical work took place 6 days before the official opening of the Universal Exhibition. If the timing was right, it was respected, although it remained some works of commissioning elevators and some joists riveted.
Historical landmark: May 6, 1889, opening of the World Expo
May 6, 1889: Opening of the World Exhibition of 1889
The Eiffel Tower serves as an entrance gate to the 1889 World's Fair. Le Monde discovers the grandeur of this structure built in the heart of Paris. The work is still going on, so visitors can not get there yet.
May 15, 1889: Opening the tower to the public
The public can finally climb on the Eiffel Tower, but by the stairs only, the elevators are not yet put in service. Visitors arrive en masse. From the first week we counted 28 922 visitors, which is huge. This success will be more mixed afterwards.
May 1889: The lighting of the tower is made of gas.
When it was created, the Eiffel Tower is lit in two ways. The monument itself is lit by gas burners placed in glass globes for security. They made enough light to move and illuminate the monument. The second way was a huge projector that broadcast a blue, white and red beam oriented towards the monuments of Paris. It was electric, him.
May 26, 1889: Commissioning of one of the two elevators "Roux et Combaluzier".
The first elevator has been put into service is that of the East pillar, it is a Roux and Combaluzier, which will be replaced 10 years later.
June 1, 1889: End of riveting work
This time, it's really the end of the work on the Eiffel Tower, excluding the installation of elevators. The erection crews are definitely leaving the job site.
June 2, 1889: End of the establishment of the 2nd elevator "Roux and Combaluzier" and "Edoux"
The 2nd lift Roux and Combaluzier is that of the West pillar, its assembly was completed on the same day as that of the Edoux elevator that climbs to the 3rd floor, with the need to be transhipped at the mid-point on the platform. intermediate form.
4 June 1889: Commissioning of the first of two Otis elevators.
This elevator is in the North Pillar. Nowadays it is always an Otis elevator that goes up to the 2nd floor in this pillar!
June 13, 1889: Commissioning of the Edoux elevator, which leads to the 3rd floor. (Learn more
It will have been 11 days between the completion of this lift and its commissioning.
19 June 1889: Commissioning of the second lifts "Roux et Combaluzier" and "Otis"
The last of the five lifts of the Eiffel Tower to be put into service, the 2nd "Roux and Combaluzier" was in the West pillar. The 2nd Otis was in the South pillar.
July 2, 1889: Visit of Edmond and Jules Goncourt
Many personalities came to the Eiffel Tower during the World Expo. On July 2nd, it was the Goncourt brothers.
September 11, 1889: Eiffel organizes a dinner on the 1st floor with Thomas Edison
Eiffel and Edison had something in common, starting with the fact that they were two big manufacturers. On this occasion, Edison offered a phonograph, a device of which he was the inventor and manufacturer.
October 24, 1889: Start of the work of Mr Cornu on the atmospheric absorption of radiation
As soon as possible Eiffel gave permission to use the tower for scientific purposes, which allowed him, a few years later, not to see it being dismantled. October 24 is the day of an experiment that will take a step further in the knowledge of solar radiation. (Learn more)
1889: Installation of a 2nd floor printing press
As soon as it was built, Eiffel authorized this strange event, the installation of the "Figaro" printing press on the 2nd floor of the tower. The newspaper is actually made on the spot, with the possibility for visitors to have their name inscribed in it. (Learn more)
Historical landmark: October 31, 1889, closing of the World Expo
October 31, 1889: End of the Paris Universal Exhibition
During this World Expo 2 million people visited the Eiffel Tower. If it is a great success, it will not last, the tower will never reach such frequentations during the first years, even during the World Expo of 1900.
December 31, 1889: Cease activity of the company "Gustave Eiffel et Cie"
A sad day for Gustave Eiffel, who is forced to stop his business following the scandal in Panama. He had signed a contract for the supply of canal locks, and as such was drawn into the scandal.
1890 - 1899
January 1, 1890: Start of the 20-year concession to Gustave Eiffel
From this day Gustave Eiffel is 20 years old in front of him to make the tower profitable, officially. In fact, he will do everything he can to ensure that it will never be dismantled, and he will achieve this by finding a military application: At the beginning of the 20th century, he served as a reception antenna for the brand new technology. broadcasting. (Learn more)
June 30, 1890: Nocturnal Air Navigation Experience from the Eiffel Tower
The tower could also serve as a positioning beacon for air navigation. At the end of the 19th century aviation had not started yet, but balloons were used to move. The location experience from the tower allowed a balloon to travel over a distance of more than 150 Kms. (Learn more)
October 6, 1896: First telephotography tests
Telephotography is simply remote photography. The mechanism is common nowadays, it's called a zoom, on our cameras. But in 1896, it was necessary to use a camera coupled to an enlarging system. (Learn more)
1897: Replacement of two elevators "Roux-Combaluzier".
These two elevators did not work, they had to be changed ten years after their poses. They were installed in the East and West pillars and were replaced by hydraulic "Fives-Lille", commissioned in 1899.
1898: Eiffel authorizes the installation of a weather station.
In fact, it is a real weather laboratory that was placed at the top in the form of a plate on which stood various instruments of mesuse and a room containing recording devices. This is the first observatory of this kind installed so high. (Find out more)
5 November 1898: Establishment of the first radio link between the tower and the Pantheon
It was at the end of 1898 that a Eugène Ducretet antenna was put in place, thus making a telephone call between the Eiffel Tower and the Pantheon, 4 km away. This is the first large-scale scientific experiment that we owe to the Eiffel Tower. ( Learn more )
1899: Commissioning of two hydraulic "Fives-Lille" lifts.
These lifts replaced the "Roux-Combaluzier" in the East and West pillars, reaching the end of their life, after only 10 years of use.
1900 - 1914
1900: The initial lighting is changed, it becomes completely electric
This lighting is for the first time entirely electric. It consists of 5,000 bulbs arranged on the sides.
1907: Installing an electric light clock
This is one of the first elements on the Eiffel Tower, a luminous electric dial donannt time. It will be followed by many other elements, such as the Y2K meter, Citroën advertising, the symbol of Europe, etc.
October 18, 1909: The Eiffel Tower is bypassed for the first time by an airplane
It was a wooden Wright and canvas piloted by the Earl of Lambert. This flight marked a milestone in French aviation.
December 31, 1909: Last theoretical day of the concession
This concession was the subject of a contract between Eiffel and the committee for the Universal Exhibition. It was intended to allow the author to make his building profitable, but the tower was not dismantled to completion, as planned. It was also that day that there was a change of ownership in favor of the city of Paris. (Find out more)
1910: Replacement of two elevators.
In 1910 there was another change of elevators, those of the South and North pillars. Otis were installed.
1912: Death of Franz Reichelt, the bird-man
Mr Reichelt is a tailor from Longjumeau, a city in the southern suburbs of Paris. Convinced to have discovered a practical method for jumping great heights, he makes a model parachute and invites the press to attend his jump. This one will die crushed to the ground, his parachute not being effective enough. (Learn more)
Historical landmark: 1914, World War I
1914 - 1936
1914: First military use of the Eiffel Tower.
During World War I the army used the tower as a TSF antenna and captures important messages, the tower becomes a real tool in the service of France.
February 6, 1922: Official opening of Radio Tour Eiffel
Following many tests of TSF in previous years, Radio Tour Eiffel is created. Three years later, the first television broadcasting trials take place.
1925: Installation on the Citroën advertising tower.
This advertisement is very well known even nowadays. It was a luminous sign made of 250,000 different colored lamps forming the letters of the mark, vertically. This illumination remained 11 years.
1933: Installing a light clock
New clock, after the one set up in 1907. It was offered by André Citroën. It was an electric dial based on bulbs sized multicolored needles. The dial was still 15m high.
April 26, 1935: Beginning of the regular broadcast of television programs.
Historical landmark: The 1937 renovation
1937 - 1944
May 25, 1937: Opening of the "International Exhibition of Arts and Applied Techniques to Modern Life"
This is actually the name of the era of world exhibitions, more focused on arts and techniques. On this occasion, a lot of work has been done on the Eiffel Tower, with in particular very elaborate lighting effects.
1937: Replacement of restaurants on the 1st floor.
The four restaurants, one of which had been transformed into a theater, are destroyed. Only two are rebuilt. this layout is part of the many modifications made to the tower in 1937.
1937: Changing lighting
For the exhibition of 1937 it was installed a multicolored chandelier made of luminous tubes under the first platform, but also of 30 projectors powerful illuminating the monument. The tower also has blue, white and red colors.
1939: Fiftieth Anniversary of the Tower
To celebrate his fiftieth birthday the Eiffel Tower receives the Archbishop of Paris, Mgr. Chaptal, who pronounces a mass on the 1st floor. Mass will be followed by a grand gala dinner with prestigious guests, including the Duke of Windsor, the ambassadors of Spain and Poland, etc.
Historical landmark: 1939, World War II
1940: Paris is taken by the Germans
The Eiffel Tower is busy, like the whole city. The Germans set up a television broadcasting station at the top that will be recovered and used by the French at liberation.
1948: An Elephant on the Eiffel Tower
If we wanted to prove that the Eiffel Tower is very resistant we would not have done otherwise ... That's what the visitors had to say when, one day in 1948, they met Bouglione and his oldest elephant (85 years) on the first floor. Tired, she could not climb higher.
August 24, 1944: Paris is liberated
This day is the day of the liberation of Paris, it is primarily a historical day for France, but also for the Eiffel Tower. To celebrate the liberation, a tricolor flag made of 3 sheets of color is erected at the top of the Eiffel Tower.
1945 - 1978
1952: Installation of an aeronautical beacon beacon
New use of the Eiffel Tower for aerial use, with the installation of a long-range lighthouse at the top of the tower. It replaces the one of Mount Valerian, destroyed during the war. He will stay there until 1974.
1954: Installation of a radar by the allies.
The Eiffel Tower continues its technical and scientific interest. More than 50 years after air navigation tests for airships, this radar installed at the top of the tower helps secure the air around the capital.
May 1958: Changing the lighting.
In May 1958 the lighting of the Eiffel Tower is modified, it now takes much of its light from pits all around the monument. These facilities remained on site until 31 December 1985, they consisted of 1 290 projectors.
1962: Edith Piaf Concert
In 1962, the movie "The longest day" was released in the cinema, a masterpiece that made an impression. On the occasion of its release there was a gala during which Edith Piaf was invited to sing on the Eiffel Tower.
1965: Schneider Lift Installation
After more than 60 years of use, the North Pillar lift had to be replaced. It was an Otis lift replaced by a Schneider.
1966: Concert Charles Aznavour and Georges Brassens
These two singers practiced their art on the Eiffel Tower at the launch of the global campaign against hunger.
1978: Installation of a bright Christmas tree
Yet another decorative element on the Eiffel Tower, with the display of a large Christmas tree, made entirely of light bulbs. He decorated the tower during the Christmas period of 1978.
Historical landmark: Renovation of 1980
1979 - 2000
1981: The Eiffel Tower underwent its biggest renovation .
Many beams are removed, considerably lightening the set The decorations are redone, the floors are transformed. The restaurant "Jules Verne" is created, as is "La belle de France" and "Le Parisien", replacing the two restaurants dating from 1937.
1982: Inauguration of recent renovations.
As the 1980 renovations were completed, the mayor of Paris Jacques Chirac inaugurated the new facilities.
1983: End of the use of the Edoux elevator, which climbed to the 3rd floor.
This elevator was installed during the construction of the tower, it was time to change it because it was hydraulic and in winter, the freeze prevented it from working.
June 1983: Concert Alexis Weissenberg.
The world-renowned artist performs a piano recital in one of the first floor rooms.
1983: Auction auction of the 3rd floor stairway
Following the modernization of the Eiffel Tower stair portions of the Eiffel Tower, those rising spiral on the third floor of the tower, are put up for auction. The auction takes place on the 1st floor of the tower.
1985: Installation of new lighting
This is the last modification to the Eiffel Tower made during the 80s. The new lighting consists of 336 projectors to sodium installed in the very structure of the tower.
1989: the funanbule Philippe Petit joins the palace of Chaillot
Some time ago he had installed a 700m long cable between the Tracadero and the first floor of the Eiffel Tower. His exploit was filmed all along.
1996: Creation of the brewery "Altitude 95"
This brewery is replacing the two restaurants "La Belle France" and "Le Parisien". It is completely redone, but will be closed for works from late 2008 to early 2009.
April 5, 1997: Launch of the meter around the year 2000
On April 5, 1997, three years before the year 2000, the Mayor of Paris triggers a countdown from 1000 days to 0, which will illuminate at midnight. For the record, those who lived it remember that this meter stopped a few hours before the hour, after 3 years of normal operation.
1997: Organization of WYD in Paris, under the Eiffel Tower
WYD are organized days for Christian youth who come together to live their faith. On this occasion the pope moves, of course. In 1997 the WYD was organized in Paris, under the Eiffel Tower.
1998: Concert of the 3 tenors
The forecourt of the Eiffel Tower hosts a major concert: José Carreras, Placido Domingo and Luciano Pavarotti, known as "The 3 Tenors", give a recital in front of 200,000 spectators.
May 9, 2000: The tower takes on the colors of Europe
On 9 May being the day of Europe, this day was installed on the tower the flags of the different countries of the union, all around the first floor.
2000: Classical Concert
It was also in the year 2000 that classical works were played at the foot of the Eiffel Tower by the Paris Symphony Orchestra and the Boston Symphony Orchestra (conducted by Seji Ozawa).
2000: Johnny Hallyday Concert
Yet another concert in the year 2000, Johnny Hallyday's concert, which is performed in front of 600,000 spectators. The concert is broadcast on television. For the occasion, a suitable pyrotechnic show was designed.
Historical milestone: 2000 Ceremony
December 31, 2000: Setting up flickering
For the first time the new lighting embellished the Eiffel Tower: This is a flicker of the most beautiful effect, which will be stopped on July 14, 2001 and resumed at the general request on June 21, 2003. It must be said that it was originally planned only to last a year.
2000 to the present day
2004: Replacement of projectors
Due to their fatigue, the 336 projectors placed inside the structure of the tower are replaced.
2005: Installation of DTT
The broadcasting transmitter of the tower goes digital, the Paris region is then fed according to this new television standard, TNT.
2005: Taïg Khris jump from the first floor in rollerblade
It is from November 18 to 20 that multi-discipline sportsman Taïg Khris has jumped several times from the first floor of the Eiffel Tower in rollerblading. The finish was set on an inverted springboard slowing its course, then by big blocks of foam.
2007: Projection of a rugby logo
For the rugby World Cup, organized in France, the Eiffel Tower projects on its flank rugby poles in the center of which passes a ball of 13 m long, simulating the penalty.
2011: The tower undergoes new transformations
The first floor is completely redone, with novelties such as the installation of a glass floor and the modernization of the first floor buildings.
February 2015: Installation of 2 wind turbines
These new installations are more symbolic than useful. By putting them on the tower, the city of Paris shows that renewable energies can be used everywhere, including the most emblematic monuments of the world.